60% higher rates of COVID-19 among people with low levels of
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Patients with "likely deficient" vitamin D status had nearly doubled risk of testing positive for COVID-19 versus those with "likely sufficient" vitamin D, a single-center study found.

Among nearly 500 patients, the relative risk for infection was 1.77 in those judged to be vitamin D-deficient compared with patients believed to have sufficient vitamin D, reported researchers in JAMA Network Open.

Deficiency and sufficiency were estimated not only on the basis of vitamin D metabolite levels (25-hydroxycholecalciferol and 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol with thresholds of 20 ng/dL and 18 pg/mL, respectively) but also on records of vitamin D supplement prescriptions following those measurements.

Researchers drew on electronic health record data from 4,314 patients tested for COVID-19, of these, 489 had complete data and were included in the sample. Average patient age was 49, 75% were women.

One-quarter were determined to be likely deficient in vitamin D and 59% were likely sufficient; the remainder didn't qualify for either status because supplement prescriptions after measurement introduced uncertainty.

Compared to patients who weren't vitamin D deficient, those who were tended to be younger, a race other than white, more likely to receive vitamin D2 and less likely to receive vitamin D3. Overall, 71 participants tested positive for COVID-19.

Other than vitamin D deficiency being a consequence of chronic health conditions or behavioral factors that increase COVID-19 risk, limitations to the data also include its limited sample size and that researchers were limited to data within the electronic health record.

Source: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamanetworkopen/fullarticle/2770157
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