A case report of cocaine abuse, acute coronary syndrome, and
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Intracoronary imaging techniques have allowed characterizing atherosclerotic plaques morphologically in patients with the acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Although the main feature described is plaque rupture, the use of optical coherence tomography has made it possible to objectify that the eroded plaque is not uncommon in this setting.

Authors have presented a case of a 45-year-old man with active smoking and cocaine user, admitted to the emergency department for chest pain. The electrocardiogram showed ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in the inferior leads. Emergent coronary angiography was performed, showing thrombotic occlusion of mid-distal right coronary artery. After successful thromboaspiration, no areas of significant angiographic stenosis were observed.

Optical coherence tomography imaging at the occlusion site revealed an eroded plaque and a remaining small thrombusburden. Conservative management without stent implantation was decided. Treatments consisted of an acute phase glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor and subsequently dual antiplatelet therapy with Aspirin (ASA) and Ticagrelor 90?mg b.i.d. for 12?months. The patient remains asymptomatic and uneventful at 9-month follow-up.

Young age, history of active smoking, and cocaine use are common clinical features in patients with ACS due to an eroded plaque. These patients frequently display a STEMI with the involvement of a single coronary vessel. Optical coherence tomography imaging aids to a precise diagnosis and to define a proper treatment.

Source: https://academic.oup.com/ehjcr/article/5/6/ytab128/6289838