A healthy lifestyle helps to prevent gestational diabetes in
The RADIEL study is an RCT aimed at prevention of GDM and postpartum diabetes through lifestyle intervention. Participants with a BMI 30 kg/m2 and/or prior GDM were allocated to intervention and control groups before pregnancy or in early pregnancy. The study visits took place every 3 months before pregnancy, once in each trimester, and at 6 weeks and 6 and 12 months postpartum. They calculated a polygenic risk score (PRS) based on 50 risk variants for type 2 diabetes.

Altogether, 516 participants provided genetic and GDM data. The PRS was associated with higher glycaemic levels (fasting glucose and/or HbA1c) and a lower insulin secretion index in the second and third trimesters and at 12 months postpartum, as well as with a higher occurrence of GDM and glycaemic abnormalities at 12 months postpartum (n = 356). There was an interaction between the PRS and lifestyle intervention (p=0.016 during pregnancy and p=0.024 postpartum) when analysing participants who did not have GDM at the first study visit during pregnancy (n = 386). When analysing women in tertiles according to the PRS, the intervention was effective in reducing the age-adjusted occurrence of GDM only among those with the highest genetic risk (OR 0.37; 95% CI 0.17, 0.82). The risk of glycaemic abnormalities at 12 months postpartum was reduced in the same group after adjusting additionally for BMI, parity, smoking and education (OR 0.35; 95% CI 0.13, 0.97).

Genetic predisposition to diabetes modifies the response to a lifestyle intervention aimed at prevention of GDM and postpartum diabetes. This suggests that lifestyle intervention may benefit from being tailored according to genetic risk.

Source: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00125-022-05712-7