A nasal high-flow system prevents upper airway obstruction a
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Upper airway obstruction (UAO) and oxygen desaturation are risk factors for major complications of intravenous sedation (IVS) in pediatric dental patients. This study aimed to investigate the use of a nasal high-flow (NHF) system for the prevention of UAO and oxygen desaturation in pediatric dental patients under IVS.

The authors implemented a prospective randomized design. Thirty pediatric patients (aged 3 to 12), scheduled for dental treatment under IVS, were enrolled in this study. The subjects were randomly assigned to one of two groups: patients who received oxygen at 5 L/min through a nasal cannula (NC group) and patients who received oxygen at 2 kg/L/min, up to a maximum of 30 L/min, through the NHF system. The predictor variable was flow rate. The primary outcome variable was the need for intervention during treatment, and the secondary outcome variable was the lowest oxygen saturation (SpO 2) values during the procedure. Additional study variables measured included patient age, gender, weight, height, and surgical duration. The Mann–Whitney U test and Fisher’s exact test were used for statistical analysis.

Both the NC (n=15, mean age 6.2 ± 2.3) and NHF (n=15, mean age 5.9 ± 2.5) groups had a male/female ratio of 2:1. The use of the NHF system significantly improved the lowest SpO 2 values during treatment. Jaw lifting, to relieve UAO and facilitate spontaneous breathing, was required in both the NC (n=10) and NHF (n=3) groups. The need for interventions during treatment was significantly lower in the NHF group.

The results of this study suggest that the use of the nasal high-flow system can prevent UAO and improve the respiratory condition of pediatric dental patients under IVS .

Source: https://www.joms.org/article/S0278-2391(20)31249-0/fulltext?rss=yes