A novel classification for medial malleolar fracture based o
Fracture of the medial malleolus is one of the most frequent injuries treated surgically; however, the classification of the fracture has not attracted much attention. Consecutive cases of medial malleolus fractures were prospectively enrolled.

Based on the 3-D reconstruction CT morphology and centered on the posterior colliculus of the medial malleolus, study classified the fractures into 4 types: type 1 with no involvement of the posterior colliculus, type 2 with partial involvement of posterior colliculus, type 3 with the entire involvement of posterior colliculus, and type 4 with the fracture line 4 vertically extended from the intercollicular groove to the comminuted fracture of the posterior malleolus.

--There were 273 cases prospectively enrolled. The distribution of the cases was type 1 of 12.1%, type 2 of 41.0%, type 3 of 30.0%, and type 4 of 16.8%.

--Statistics showed that the new classification had significant associations but did not totally depend on the classical ankle fracture classifications.

--Results showed that the new classification had implications in the severity of ankle fractures. From type 1 to type 4, the ankle joint was more and more unstable.

--Furthermore, comminuted medial malleolar fractures could be subdivided, and the new classification could provide useful information for surgical decision-making.

Conclusively, The unique categorization proved to be a helpful technique for describing the fragmented medial malleolus' 3-D shape.

Source: https://josr-online.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13018-021-02688-9