Abnormal placental perfusion and the risk of stillbirth
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A hospital-based retrospective cohort study involving women with a singleton pregnancy between 2012 and 2016 (N=41,632). Multivariate analysis was performed to compare the prevalence of stillbirth in infants exposed to APP (abnormal placental perfusion) (defined as any abnormality in right or left uterine artery pulsatility index or resistance index [UtA-PI, RI] [e.g., > 95th percentile] or presence of early diastolic notching) with that in those not exposed to APP.

Stillbirths were more common among women with APP than among those with normal placental perfusion (stillbirth rate, 4.3 ‰ vs 0.9 ‰; odds ratio (OR), 4.2; 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.2 to 8.0). The association strengths were consistent across groups of infants exposed to APP that separately defined by abnormality in right or left UtA-PI or -RI (OR ranged from 3.2 to 5.3; all P 0.008). The associations were slightly stronger for the unexplained stillbirths. Most of the unexplained stillbirth risk was attributed to APP (59.0%), while a foetal sex disparity existed (94.5% for males and 58.0% for females). Women with normal placental perfusion and a male foetus had higher credibility (e.g., higher specificities) in excluding stillbirths than those with APP and a female foetus at any given false negative rate from 1 to 10% (93.4%~94.1% vs. 12.3%~14.0%).

APP is associated with and accounts for most of the unexplained stillbirth risk. Different mechanisms exist between the sexes. The performance of screening for stillbirth may be improved by stratification according to sex and placental perfusion.

Read more : https://bmcpregnancychildbirth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12884-021-03776-8
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