Abuse in childhood and adolescence linked to higher likeliho
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Children who are exposed to abuse before they are eleven years old and those exposed to abuse both in childhood and adolescence may be more likely to develop conduct problems (such as bullying or stealing) than those exposed to abuse in adolescence only and those who are not exposed to abuse, according to a study published in the journal BMC Psychiatry.

Researchers sought to investigate the effects of timing of child abuse on conduct problem trajectories in a large UK birth cohort study.

They applied latent class growth analysis to identify conduct problem trajectories in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, using parent-rated conduct problems from ages 4–17?years. Childhood-only and adolescence-only abuse, in addition to abuse in both developmental periods, were assessed by retrospective self-report at age 22?years.

The result was;
--Researchers identified four developmental trajectories: early-onset persistent, adolescence-onset, childhood-limited, and low conduct problems.

--Childhood-only abuse and ‘persistent’ abuse were associated with increased odds of being on the early-onset persistent and adolescence-onset conduct problem trajectories compared to the low conduct problems trajectory.

--Adolescence-only abuse was not predictive of trajectory membership.

--There were no associations between abuse and childhood-limited trajectory membership.

Conclusively, early-onset persistent and adolescence-onset conduct problems showed similar patterns of association with abuse exposure, challenging developmental theories that propose qualitative, as opposed to quantitative, differences in environmental risk factors between these trajectories. The results also highlight that childhood-only and ‘persistent’ abuse were more strongly linked to elevated conduct problem trajectories than adolescence-only abuse, and that ‘persistent’ abuse is particularly detrimental.

Source: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12888-021-03083-8