Acute Postviral Encephalopathy - Child Neurology Open
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The authors report a case of fatal acute encephalopathy following influenza infection, with slightly atypical pathological and imaging findings. A healthy 8-year-old boy with probable recent influenza A/B infection admitted for refractory seizures was placed on phenobarbital coma and later developed hemodynamic instability. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed bilateral cerebral and cerebellar white matter lesions and microhemorrhages. Following his demise, the autopsy revealed a large area of necrosis in the right centrum semiovale with similar lesions in the temporal and cerebellar regions. Microscopically, there was extensive coagulative necrosis, compatible with necrotizing white matter encephalopathy, and neuronal loss suggesting superimposed hypoxic–ischemia. The acute progressive neurologic deterioration was partly reminiscent on acute necrotizing encephalopathy, a condition recently associated with influenza A.

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