Acute effects on glucose tolerance by neprilysin inhibition
A crossover trial in 12 patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes. A mixed meal was ingested following five respective interventions: 1) a single dose of sacubitril/valsartan, 2) sitagliptin, 3) sacubitril/valsartan + sitagliptin, 4) control (no treatment), and 5) valsartan alone. Glucose, gut and pancreatic hormone responses were measured.

Postprandial plasma glucose increased by 57% (iAUC0-240min) (P=0.0003) and increased peak plasma glucose by 1.7mM [95% CI: 0.6 – 2.9] (P=0.003) after sacubitril/valsartan compared to control, whereas postprandial glucose levels did not change significantly after sacubitril/valsartan + sitagliptin. Glucagon, GLP-1 and C-peptide concentrations increased after sacubitril/valsartan, but insulin and GIP did not change.

The glucose lowering effects of long-term sacubitril/valsartan treatment reported in patients with heart failure and type 2 diabetes may not depend on changes in entero-pancreatic hormones. Neprilysin inhibition results in hyperglucagonemia and this may explain the worsen glucose tolerance observed in this study.