Acute kidney injury induced by thrombotic microangiopathy in
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Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a fatal clinical syndrome characterized by excessive immune activation and inflammation. It is frequently complicated by acute kidney injury (AKI) that often develops as acute tubular necrosis (ATN). Meanwhile, renal thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) is a rare pathologic finding that mostly occurs in hemolytic uremic syndrome or thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. This article presents here a rare case of TMA associated HLH.

Case presentation:
A 60-year-old woman was admitted for a fever of unknown origin that had persisted for several weeks. She presented with AKI and pancytopenia. Clinical, laboratory and bone marrow biopsy findings met the criteria of HLH. Kidney biopsy showed TMA and minimal ATN, which suggested that the primary cause of AKI was TMA in this case. Because of sustained oliguria, we initiated hemodialysis (HD) and also decided to use chemotherapy composed of dexamethasone, etoposide and cyclosporine for treatment of HLH. Six months after the initiation of chemotherapy, pancytopenia was completely resolved, indicating the resolution of HLH. At the same time, serum creatinine decreased to a normal range without the need for HD, suggesting the resolution of TMA...

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