An episiotomy is a surgical incision made in the perineum, the area between the vagina and anus.Episiotomies are done during the second stage of labor to expand the opening of the vagina to prevent tearing of the area during the delivery of the baby. INDICATIONS are- 1.Evidence of maternal or fetal distress (i.e. no time to allow perineum to stretch).
2.The baby is premature or in breech position, and his/her head could be damaged by a tight perineum.
3.The baby is too large to be delivered without causing extensive tearing.
4.The delivery is being assisted by forceps.
5.The mother is too tired or unable to push.