Anal carcinoma risk elevated in individuals with HIV and ano
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Anal carcinoma risk was significantly higher among individuals with HIV and a history of anal or genital warts than among those with no history of these warts, according to a study.

In the US, incidence of and mortality due to anal carcinoma are rising faster than for most other cancers. Identifying populations who have a higher risk of developing anal cancers is critical to target preventive interventions.

This study aimed to assess the risk of developing anal carcinoma in adults living with HIV who have a history of anogenital warts.

This longitudinal cohort study included adults living with HIV from 14 clinics in Washington, DC, and at least 18 months of follow-up. Development of warts in the anal or genital region were identified by diagnosis codes. Individuals with anal carcinoma were identified by diagnosis codes or anal biopsy results.

Results:
-- A total of 6515 participants were enrolled (4720 male at birth; mean age, 49.9 years), and 383 (5.9%) developed anogenital warts during the study period.

-- Patients who were diagnosed with anogenital warts were more likely to subsequently develop anal carcinoma (17 of 383 [4.4%]) compared with participants without a history of anogenital warts (17 of 6132 [0.3%]).

-- After adjusting for covariates, the odds of developing anal carcinoma were 12.79 times higher in individuals with a history of anogenital warts compared with individuals without a history of anogenital warts.

Conclusively, these findings suggest that adults living with HIV who have a history of anogenital warts have a substantially increased risk of developing anal carcinoma. Clinicians should counsel individuals living with HIV who have anogenital warts on this risk.

Source: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamadermatology/article-abstract/2774799
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