Analysis of Risk factors for pulmonary cement embolism durin
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Based on postoperative computed tomography (CT), the goal of this study is to determine the risk factors and incidence of pulmonary cement embolism (PCE) following percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) or kyphoplasty (PKP) for osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (OVCFs).

A total of 2344 patients who underwent PVP or PKP due to OVCFs were analyzed retrospectively. According to the detection of postoperative pulmonary CT, the patients were divided into two groups: pulmonary cement embolism group (PCE group) and non-pulmonary cement embolism group (NPCE group).

Demographic data in both groups were compared using the X2 test for qualitative data and the unpaired t test for quantitative data. Multiple logistic regression analysis was carried out to identify risk factors that were significantly related to the PCE resulting from cement leakage.

Results:
--PCE was found in 34 patients (1.9%) with pulmonary CT examination after operation. There was no statistically significant difference in the parameters such as age, gender, body mass index (BMI), and cement volume in the two groups.

--Patients with three or more involved vertebrae had a significantly increased risk to suffer from PCE than those with one involved vertebra.

--Patients who suffered thoracic fracture had a significantly increased risk to suffer from PCE than those who suffered thoracolumbar fracture.

--And significantly increased PCE risk also was observed in thoracic fracture compared with lumbar fracture patients.

--The risk of PCE within 2 weeks after fracture was significantly higher than that after 2 weeks of fracture. Patients who underwent PVP surgery had a significantly increased PCE risk than those who underwent PKP surgery.

Finally, due to the lack of a routine postoperative pulmonary imaging scan, the true frequency of PCE is underestimated. The number of involved vertebrae, the location of the fracture, the time of the procedure, and the method of the procedure are all independent risk factors for PCE.

Source: https://josr-online.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13018-021-02472-9
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