Anti-Müllerian hormone levels and risk of type 2 diabetes in
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Given its role in ovarian follicle development, circulating anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is considered to be a marker of reproductive ageing. Although accelerated reproductive ageing has been associated with a higher risk of type 2 diabetes, research on the relationship between AMH and type 2 diabetes risk is scarce. Therefore, researchers aimed to investigate whether age-specific AMH levels and age-related AMH trajectories are associated with type 2 diabetes risk in women.

They measured AMH in repeated plasma samples from 3293 female participants (12,460 samples in total), aged 20–59 years at recruitment, from the Doetinchem Cohort Study, a longitudinal study with follow-up visits every 5 years. They calculated age-specific AMH tertiles at baseline to account for the strong AMH–age correlation. Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for confounders were used to assess the association between baseline age-specific AMH tertiles and incident type 2 diabetes. They applied linear mixed models to compare age-related AMH trajectories for women who developed type 2 diabetes with trajectories for women who did not develop diabetes.

Results:
-- During a median follow-up of 20 years, 163 women developed type 2 diabetes.

-- Lower baseline age-specific AMH levels were associated with a higher type 2 diabetes risk.

-- These findings seem to be supported by predicted AMH trajectories, which suggested that plasma AMH levels were lower at younger ages in women who developed type 2 diabetes compared with women who did not.

-- The trajectories also suggested that AMH levels declined at a slower rate in women who developed type 2 diabetes, although differences in trajectories were not statistically significant.

Conclusively, they observed that lower age-specific AMH levels were associated with a higher risk of type 2 diabetes in women. Longitudinal analyses did not show clear evidence of differing AMH trajectories between women who developed type 2 diabetes compared with women who did not, possibly because these analyses were underpowered. Further research is needed to investigate whether AMH is part of the biological mechanism explaining the association between reproductive ageing and type 2 diabetes.

Source: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00125-020-05302-5
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