Aortic stenosis of a bicuspid aortic valve in a patient with
Klippel–Feil syndrome (KFS) is a rare congenital anomaly of the cervical spine, which is associated with a number of cardiovascular malformations, including coarctation of the aorta, bicuspid aortic valve (BAoV), and aortic aneurysm. Operative management of aortic stenosis of a BAoV in a patient with KFS has not been previously reported.

A 54-year-old Caucasian woman with known KFS presented to her local hospital for elective cholecystectomy. An ejection systolic murmur was found incidentally on preoperative workup, which was confirmed to be due to a severely stenosed BAoV. The cholecystectomy was cancelled, and the patient was referred to our centre and accepted for surgical aortic valve replacement (AVR) based on symptomatic and prognostic grounds. Anaesthetic review of cervical spine imaging showed fusion of the C2–C6 vertebral bodies and a desiccated bulging disc at C4–C5 but no significant foraminal narrowing in the lower cervical spine. Valve replacement with a mechanical aortic prosthesis resulted in an uneventful recovery and the patient was discharged home to follow-up.

This is the first case of severe aortic valve stenosis requiring AVR in a Klippel–Feil patient, in whom the aortic valve was confirmed to be bicuspid. This report provides further evidence of an association of KFS with BAoV and strengthens the case for screening and follow-up of KFS patients for BAoV and other cardiovascular pathologies, the consequences of which may be serious.