Application of patient-specific implants as alternative appr
Zygoma defects are a challenging clinical problem and are frequently connected with the alteration of facial harmony, horizontal asymmetry of the face, and significant functional deficit. The application of patient-specific implants (PSIs) has the potential to improve the effectiveness of zygoma defect management.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the anatomic, esthetic, and functional outcomes of PSI application for zygoma reconstruction.

A retrospective study was conducted on data from 11 patients with zygoma defects who underwent a reconstruction procedure in which a PSI was applied and was followed for >1 year after surgery with the evaluation of esthetic and functional outcomes. The precision of PSI position and anatomy reconstruction was estimated by the superimposition of the models with automatic point-to-point measurement and determination of the existing deviations between models.

No major complications occurred in the postoperative period: There were no clinical or computed tomography symptoms of maxillary sinusitis, implant-related infection, or implant exposure. The mean deviation between the planned and real positions of PSIs in our series was 0.72 ± 0.41 mm. The mean deviation between the reconstructed zygomatic complex and the mirrored intact side in our series was 1.45 ± 0.7 mm. The mean volume difference between the intact and damaged orbits was 1.7 ± 0.8 mm3.

The results of the present study support the wider clinical application of PSIs in orbital and zygoma reconstructions, as it is an effective option to achieve the precise reconstruction of the complex zygoma anatomy.

Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery