Association between Head Circumference at 2 years and second
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Head circumference (HC) measurement is routinely not performed in early childhood. The current study analysed the association between HC at two years of age and cognition at two and five years of age that inferred negative correlation.

A community based birth-cohort recruited between 2010 and 2012 was followed up till five years of age. Children were recruited at birth after informed parental consent by consecutive sampling using eligibility criteria of healthy new-born, singleton pregnancy and family’s availability in the study area during follow-up. HC measured at two years of age was used as the exposure variable to calculate association with cognition at both 2 and 5 years of age. Cognitive domain of Bayley scale of infant development was used at two years of age and Wechsler Preschool Primary Scales of Intelligence at 5 years.

Results:
--Of the 251 enrolled children, 138 were girls and 71 belonged to lower socioeconomic status.

--At 2years, 8.81% of children had HC-less than-3SD. Compared to children with HC z-scores more than -2 SD, those with measurements less than 3 SD had a lower cognition scores by 2.21 at 2 years.

--Also, children with HC less than 3 SD at two years scored significantly lower scores in cognitive domains of verbal, 7.35 and performance, 7.07 intelligence at 5 years.

This study showed that smaller Head Circumference at 2 years of age was negatively associated with cognition at both 2 and 5 years of age. Early childhood HC measurements can be utilised as a cheaper screening tool to identify children at risk in Low and middle income countries settings.

Source: https://bmcpediatr.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12887-021-02543-0
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