Association between Lipocalin and Postoperative Acute Kidney
A Study was conducted to examine the incidence of postoperative neonatal acute kidney injury (AKI) following general surgical procedures and to test the hypothesis that postoperative urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (uNGAL) concentrations predict AKI. The secondary objective was to evaluate for an association between AKI and hospital mortality.

Prospective observational study of infants undergoing abdominal and thoracic surgical procedures in the neonatal intensive care unit was done. The primary outcome was incidence of neonatal AKI following each procedure to postoperative day 5. Severe AKI was defined as Stage 2 or 3 AKI. Urine samples were obtained pre- and postoperatively at 6 time points to evaluate for levels of uNGAL. Secondary outcomes were in-hospital mortality and length of stay.

--Subjects (n=141) underwent a total of 192 general surgical procedures during the study period.

--Neonatal AKI and severe AKI occurred following 36 (18%) and 15 (8%) procedures (n=33 subjects).

--Percent change of uNGAL from 24-hours preoperatively to 24-hours postoperatively was greater in subjects with neonatal AKI.

--The strongest association of uNGAL and AKI occurred at 24 hours postoperatively.

--Increased mortality risk was observed in subjects with any postoperative AKI and severe AKI.

Conclusively, Elevation in uNGAL 24 hours postoperatively was found to be linked with AKI. Neonates with postoperative AKI had a higher mortality rate.