Association between skipping breakfast and risk of cardiovas
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In this meta-analysis, researchers found that skipping breakfast was an indicator of higher risk of cardiovascular disease and all cause mortality.The effects of skipping breakfast were consistent in different groups which were defined by incidence of mortality of cardiovascular disease, location, sex, age etc.

Skipping breakfast may be related to stress-independent over-activity in hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, which leads to elevation of cortisol and blood pressure & higher level of total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Also, with impaired postprandial insulin sensitivity and higher diabetes risk.Though breakfast skippers had less daily energy intake, the proportion of energy intake from unhealthy food is higher, and essential nutrients will be missed out.

Seven cohort studies concerning a total of 221,732 participants were included in this meta-analysis. Skipping breakfast was associated with elevated risk of cardiovascular disease and all cause mortality compared with eating breakfast regularly.

Several studies have found that skipping breakfast was related to smoking, alcohol intake and less exercise. All these effects may explain the association between skipping and cardiovascular disease and all cause mortality. In addition, many studies indicated that skipping breakfast may result in overweight and obesity. However, according to a recent meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials, breakfast eaters gained 0.44 kg during an average follow-up of 7 weeks. Recommending eating breakfast for weight loss may have the opposite result, though many international recommendations still advocate it to manage weight

Skipping breakfast increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and all cause mortality. Eating breakfast regularly may promote cardiovascular health and decrease all cause mortality.

Source: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0261561420300522?via=ihub

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Dr. V●●●●●●j D●●●i
Dr. V●●●●●●j D●●●i Legal Medicine
The issue of linking of skipping breakfast with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, is equivalent to linking a wrong word heard 14 years back to cardiovascular disease in the person who heard that word, IF OTHER STRONGER INDICATORS SUCH AS HIGH BP, HIGH CHOLESTEROL, DIABETES AND OTHER WELL KNOWN FACTORS ARE NOT TAKEN INTO CONSIDERATION. Let us be realistic and ignore the trifle.
Mar 4, 2020Like