Association of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in C
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These findings suggest that childhood Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is associated with an increased risk of developing a psychotic disorder, and patients need follow-up even after 18 years of age.

The objective of this JAMA study was to provide a quantitative synthesis of studies exploring the association between ADHD and the risk of subsequent psychotic disorder.

A systematic literature search of MEDLINE, Scopus, PsycInfo, and Web of Science databases was performed. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) and Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) guidelines were followed in reporting results. Two independent reviewers extracted the data and assessed the risk of bias of individual studies using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Preferably adjusted odds ratios (aORs) or hazard ratios from the identified studies were extracted, and ORs were computed when they were not adjusted.

A total of 15 studies were included in the review. Twelve studies were pooled in the meta-analysis, representing 1.85 million participants.

--A diagnosis of ADHD in childhood was associated with a significant increase in the risk of subsequent psychotic disorder, with a pooled relative effect of 4.74.

--No significant between-group differences were found for subgroup analyses according to psychotic disorder or schizophrenia or case-control study design, and adjusted or unadjusted estimates.

--Meta-regressions were not significant when sex and bias scores were used as covariates.

In conclusion, these findings suggest that childhood ADHD is associated with an increased risk of a subsequent psychotic disorder.

Source: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamapsychiatry/article-abstract/2776916
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