Association of alcohol drinking with incident type 2 diabete
All participants aged 50+ (mean =60.45; standard deviati years. Information of alcohol consumption was collected at baseline from 2003 to 2008. Incident T2D was defined as fasting glucose 7.0 mmol/l or post-load glucose 11.1 mmol/l at follow-up examination (2008-2012), self-reported T2D and/or initiation of hypoglycemia medication or insulin during follow-up. IFG was defined as fasting glucose 5.6 mmol/l and <7 mmol/l.

Of 15,716 participants without diabetes and 11,232 participants without diabetes and impaired fasting glucose at baseline, 1,624 (10.33%) developed incident T2D and 1,004 (8.94%) developed incident IFG during average 4 years of follow-up. After multivariable adjustments, compared with never drinking, occasional or moderate alcohol drinking was not associated with risk of incident hyperglycemia (T2D+IFG) (odds ratio (OR) =1.10, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.95-1.27, and 0.90 (0.69-1.18), respectively), whereas heavy alcohol drinking was associated with a higher risk of incident hyperglycemia (T2D+IFG) (OR =1.82, 95% CI 1.24-2.68). No interactions of sex, overweight/obesity and genetic polymorphisms of ADH1B/ALDH2 genes with alcohol drinking on incident T2D and/or IFG were found (P for interaction from 0.12 to 0.85). The study results support a detrimental effect of heavy alcohol use on IFG and T2D.