Association of resting heart rate with nonalcoholic fatty li
Resting heart rate, a simple and useful indicator of autonomic function, and its imbalance has emerged as an independent predictor of cardio metabolic diseases. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is increasingly being diagnosed worldwide and is strongly associated with the features of cardiometabolic diseases. This study aimed to examine the association between resting heart rate and NAFLD in postmenopausal women.

The cross-sectional study included 1017 postmenopausal women aged ≥46 years, who attended a health examination program. Resting heart rate and NAFLD were measured in all subjects who underwent a medical examination. Resting heart rate quartiles were categorized as follows: Q1: 56 to 65, Q2: 66 to 71, Q3: 72 to 78, and Q4: 79 to 99 beats/min. The odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for NAFLD were calculated after adjusting for confounding variables across resting heart rate quartiles using multiple logistic regression analysis.

The prevalence of NAFLD increased with increasing resting heart rate quartiles: 28.2% for Q1, 31.5% for Q2, 33.4% for Q3, and 38.1% for Q4 (P < .001). Compared to the 1st quartile, the odds ratio of NAFLD in the 4th quartile of resting heart rates was 2.11 after adjusting for age, body mass index, cigarette smoking, regular exercise, blood pressure, total cholesterol, triglyceride, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase levels.

In the current study, resting heart rate was significantly associated with NAFLD in postmenopausal women, suggesting resting heart rate in postmenopausal women could be a useful additional measure in assessing the prevalence risk of NAFLD. These findings support the hypothesis that a higher ratio of sympathetic to parasympathetic activity may be involved in the parthenogenesis of NAFLD.