Asthma control and psychological health in pediatric severe
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Psychological comorbidities have been associated with asthma in adults and children, but have not been studied in a population of children with severe asthma. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that symptoms of anxiety or depression are highly prevalent in pediatric severe asthma and negatively effects asthma control.

Longitudinal assessments of anxiety or depression symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire 4 [PHQ 4]), asthma control (Asthma Control Test [ACT]), and lung function were performed in a single-center pediatric severe asthma clinic. Participant data were collected during routine clinical care. Primary outcomes were ACT and forced expiratory volume in 1s per forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC).

Among 43 subjects (with total 93 observations), 58.1% reported at least one anxious or depressive symptom and 18.6% had a PHQ 4 more than 2, the threshold for an abnormal test result.
-After adjusting for age, sex, race, and asthma medication step, there was a significant reduction in ACT for girls with PHQ 4 more than 2. Moreover, there was a significant differential effect of mental health impairment for girls than boys. ACT for girls with PHQ more than 2: 13.64 (0.59) compared with boys with PHQ 4 more than 2: 17.82 (0.95), adjusted mean difference ACT by sex = 4.18 points.
-In adjusted models, there was no association between PHQ 4 more than 2 and FEV1/FVC.

It was concluded that symptoms of anxiety and depression are common. In children with severe asthma, a PHQ 4 score more than 2 is associated with worse asthma symptom control in girls, but not in boys.