Atorvastatin reduces first and subsequent vascular events ac
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The Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels (SPARCL) trial compared atorvastatin with placebo in 4,731 participants with recent stroke or transient ischemic attack and no known coronary heart disease. Atorvastatin reduced the first occurrence of stroke and the first occurrence of a composite of vascular events. Assessment of total event reduction provides an alternative metric to quantify the effect of atorvastatin in reducing disease burden after stroke or transient ischemic attack.

Statin treatment reduces the risk of first vascular events in patients with a history of symptomatic ischemic cerebrovascular disease. Despite this clinical benefit, patients are at continued risk for subsequent events, and therefore focusing solely on the first event does not reflect the total burden of disease from a patient’s perspective. This motivates consideration of alternative measures to assess how an intervention modifies disease burden in this setting.

This post hoc analysis assessed the occurrence of all (first and subsequent) vascular events and the effect of atorvastatin to reduce these events by vascular territory (cerebrovascular, coronary, or peripheral) in SPARCL. Treatment effects on total adjudicated vascular events, overall and by vascular territory, were summarized by marginal proportional hazards models. Vascular event rates were estimated for each treatment group with cumulative incidence functions.

Results: The placebo group had an estimated 41.2 first and 62.7 total vascular events per 100 participants over six years. There were 164 fewer first and 390 fewer total vascular events in the atorvastatin group. The total events reduction included 177 fewer cerebrovascular, 170 fewer coronary, and 43 fewer peripheral events. Over six years, an estimated 20 vascular events per 100 participants were avoided with atorvastatin treatment.

Conclusively, In participants with recent stroke or transient ischemic attack, the total number of vascular events prevented with atorvastatin was more than twice the number of first events prevented. Total event reduction provides a comprehensive metric to capture the totality of atorvastatin clinical efficacy in reducing disease burden after stroke or transient ischemic attack.

Source: http://www.onlinejacc.org/content/early/2020/03/11/j.jacc.2020.03.015
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