Atrioventricular Block in Children With Multisystem Inflamma
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Children are at risk for multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) after infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Cardiovascular complications, including ventricular dysfunction and coronary dilation, are frequent, but there are limited data on arrhythmic complications.

Retrospective cohort study of children and young adults aged less than 21 years admitted with MIS-C were included. Demographic characteristics, electrocardiogram (ECG) and echocardiogram findings, and hospital course were described.

Among 25 patients admitted with MIS-C (60% male; median age 9.7 [interquartile range 2.7–15.0] years), ECG anomalies were found in 14. First-degree atrioventricular block (AVB) was seen in 5 patients a median of 6 (interquartile range 5–8) days after onset of fever and progressed to second-or third-degree AVB in 4 patients. No patient required intervention for AVB. All patients with AVB were admitted to the ICU (before onset of AVB) and had ventricular dysfunction on echocardiograms. All patients with second- or third-degree AVB had elevated brain natriuretic peptide levels, whereas the patient with first-degree AVB had a normal brain natriuretic peptide level. No patient with AVB had an elevated troponin level. QTc prolongation was seen in 7 patients (28%), and nonspecific ST segment changes were seen in 14 patients (56%). Ectopic atrial tachycardia was observed in 1 patient, and none developed ventricular arrhythmias.

Children with MIS-C are at risk for atrioventricular conduction disease, especially those who require ICU admission and have ventricular dysfunction. ECGs should be monitored for evidence of PR prolongation. Continuous telemetry may be required in patients with evidence of first-degree AVB because of risk of progression to high-grade AVB.