Australian Cricketer Steve Smith’s concussion: What made him
A concussion is not as common in cricket as in contact sports such as football, however, the recent case of Australian cricketer Steve Smith has reignited debate about the safety in the game. It may be noted that Smith was hit in the neck by a 92mph bouncer from Jofra Archer during the second Ashes Test at Lord’s. However, the batsman passed an initial concussion test and returned to pitch to continue his innings. However, a subsequent test revealed concussion, forcing him to miss the final day.

A concussion is a mild form of traumatic injury (TBI). It often occurs as a result of a traumatic blow or jolt to the head, neck or the upper body that causes the head and brain to move back and forth rapidly. But it's also possible to have a concussion and not actually realise it as most concussions may not produce immediate symptoms.

What are the signs and symptoms of concussions?
The signs of concussions can be subtle and, perhaps, may not show up immediately. Symptoms may last for days, weeks or even longer and may include the following:

-Temporary loss of consciousness
-A feeling of pressure in the head
-Drowsiness or feeling sluggish
-Blurred or double vision
-Nausea or vomiting
-Sensitivity to light or noise
-Balance problems
-Delayed response to questions
-Memory problems
-Irritability and other personality changes
-Sleep disturbances
-Disorders of taste and smell
-Psychological adjustment problems and depression
-Crying excessively in children

Long-term effects of a concussion include persistent headaches, difficulty concentrating, sleep problems, etc. Other long-term complications may include post-traumatic headaches lasting for a few months, post-traumatic vertigo or dizziness that lasts for up to several months, post-concussion syndrome, etc. Post-concussion syndrome is a complex disorder which causes to experience concussion symptoms for weeks or even months.

Most concussion or mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) symptoms will go away without treatment. Guidelines for managing a concussion include:
-Headaches: Acetaminophen, such as Tylenol, is the best painkiller for a headache due to a head injury. Drugs such as aspirin, ibuprofen, and other NSAIDs should be avoided because they thin the blood and increase the risk of internal bleeding.
-Sports: It is important not to return to any sporting activity too soon. Ask a doctor.
-Alcohol: People should avoid consuming alcohol until all symptoms have completely disappeared because it slows healing.
-Migraine: The occurrence of a migraine after a concussion may indicate an increased risk of neurocognitive impairment.
-Only a small percentage of patients with MTBI require surgery.

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