BDV-syndrome: An emerging syndrome with profound obesity and
CPE encodes carboxypeptidase E, an enzyme which converts proneuropeptides and propeptide hormones to bioactive forms. It is widely expressed in the endocrine and central nervous system. To date, four individuals from two families with core clinical features including morbid obesity, neurodevelopmental delay and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, harbouring biallelic loss-of-function CPE variants, were reported.

Authors describe four affected individuals from three unrelated consanguineous families, two siblings of Syrian, one of Egyptian and one of Pakistani descent, all harbouring novel homozygous CPE loss-of-function variants.

After excluding Prader-Willi syndrome, exome sequencing was performed in both Syrian siblings. The variants identified in the other two individuals were reported as research variants in a large scale exome study and in ClinVar database. Computational modelling of all possible missense alterations allowed assessing CPE tolerance to missense variants.

-- All affected individuals were severely obese with neurodevelopmental delay and other endocrine anomalies.

-- Three individuals from two families shared the same CPE homozygous truncating variant c.361C>T, p.(Arg121*), while the fourth carried the c.994del, p.(Ser333Alafs*22) variant.

-- Comparison of clinical features with previously described cases and standardization according to the Human Phenotype Ontology indicated a recognisable clinical phenotype, which was termed Blakemore-Durmaz-Vasileiou (BDV) syndrome.

-- Computational analysis indicated high conservation of CPE domains and intolerance to missense changes.

Conclusively, Biallelic truncating CPE variants are associated with BDV syndrome, a clinically recognisable monogenic recessive syndrome with childhood-onset obesity, neurodevelopmental delay, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and hypothyroidism. BDV syndrome resembles Prader-Willi syndrome. These findings suggested that missense variants may also be clinically relevant.