Bariatric surgery can acutely modulate ER-stress and inflamm
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Bariatric surgery, especially Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), is the most effective and durable treatment option for severe obesity. The mechanisms involving adipose tissue may be important to explain the effects of surgery.

Researchers aimed to identify the genetic signatures of adipose tissue in patients undergoing RYGB. They evaluated 13 obese, non-diabetic patients (mean age 37 years, 100% women, Body mass index (BMI) 42.2 kg/m2) one day before surgery, 3 and 6 months (M) after RYGB.

-- Analysis of gene expression in adipose tissue collected at surgery compared with samples collected at 3 M and 6 M Post-RYGB showed that interleukins [Interleukin 6, Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1(MCP1)] and endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) genes [Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha kinase 3 (EIF2AK3) and Calreticulin (CALR)] decreased during the follow-up.

-- Otherwise, genes involved in energy homeostasis [Adiponectin and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)], cellular response to oxidative stress [Sirtuin 1, Sirtuin 3, and Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2)], mitochondrial biogenesis [Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC1α)] and amino acids metabolism [General control nonderepressible 2 (GCN2)] increased from baseline to all other time points evaluated.

-- Also, expression of Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (adipogenesis regulation) was significantly decreased after RYGB.

-- Additionally, they observed that PGC1α, SIRT1 and AMPK strongly correlated to BMI at 3 M, as well as ADIPOQ and SIRT1 to BMI at 6 M.

Conclusively, these findings demonstrate that weight loss is associated with amelioration of inflammation and ERS and increased protection against oxidative stress in adipose tissue. These observations are strongly correlated with a decrease in BMI and essential genes that control cellular energy homeostasis, suggesting an adaptive process on a gene expression level during the caloric restriction and weight loss period after RYGB.