Blood clots and lung injuries found in patients who have die
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Ten post-mortem examinations performed on patients with confirmed COVID-19 found that all patients had lung injuries and early scarring of the lungs as a result of the virus, as well as injury to their kidneys.

Nine patients also had thrombosis - a blood clot, in at least one major organ (heart, lung or kidney). The team was unable to investigate thrombosis in the tenth patient.

The study team also reported six main findings:

1. All patients had diffuse alveolar damage (DAD). DAD is a term used to describe a pattern of lung injury which can be seen as a result of viral infection. This type of lung injury can affect both gas exchange (oxygen and carbon dioxide) and blood flood in the lungs.

2. All patients fully assessed nine of the ten patients had some form of thrombosis- a blood clot - in at least one major organ. The researchers found thrombi in the lungs of eight patients, the heart of five patients, and the kidneys of four patients. They believe that this supports the theory that COVID-19 causes circulatory complications and that patient treatment could be augmented with blood-thinning medication to prevent blood clots.

3. All patients had evidence of acute renal tubular injury. The main causes are low blood flow to the kidneys and severe infections. It often affects patients who are in hospital and intensive care units.

4. T-Lymphocyte Depletion (TLD) in the spleen and the lymph nodes was another consistent finding. Haemophagocytosis is another consistent finding in this group, which occurs when the immune system overreacts to an infection and destroys some of its own cells.

5. The researchers found evidence of acute pancreatitis in two of the patients. Damage to the pancreas in COVID-19 patients has not been reported before but it is not clear in this study whether the pancreatitis was related to COVID-19 infection or other causes.

6. The researchers also found evidence of rare fungal infection, in one of the patients, called Mucormycosis. Severe infections can involve the lungs, brain, and other organs including the kidneys, spleen, and heart.

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