Effective treatments for patients with severe COVID-19 are needed. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of canakinumab, an anti–interleukin-1Beta antibody, in patients hospitalized with severe COVID-19. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial was conducted at 39 hospitals in Europe and the United States. A total of 454 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 pneumonia, hypoxia (not requiring invasive mechanical ventilation [IMV]), and systemic hyperinflammation defined by increased blood concentrations of C-reactive protein or ferritin were enrolled. Patients were randomly assigned 1:1 to receive a single intravenous infusion of canakinumab (450 mg for body weight of 40-60 kg, 600 mg for 60-80 kg, and 750 mg for more than 80 kg; n=227) or placebo (n=227). The primary outcome was survival without IMV from day 3 to day 29. Secondary outcomes were COVID-19–related mortality, measurements of biomarkers of systemic hyperinflammation, and safety evaluations. Results: -- Among 454 patients who were randomized (median age, 59 years; 187 women [41.2%]), 417 (91.9%) completed day 29 of the trial. -- Between days 3 and 29, 198 of 223 patients (88.8%) survived without requiring IMV in the canakinumab group and 191 of 223 (85.7%) in the placebo group, with a rate difference of 3.1% and an odds ratio of 1.39. -- COVID-19–related mortality occurred in 11 of 223 patients (4.9%) in the canakinumab group vs 16 of 222 (7.2%) in the placebo group, with a rate difference of 2.3% and an odds ratio of 0.67. -- Serious adverse events were observed in 36 of 225 patients (16%) treated with canakinumab vs 46 of 223 (20.6%) who received placebo. Conclusively, among patients hospitalized with severe COVID-19, treatment with canakinumab, compared with placebo, did not significantly increase the likelihood of survival without IMV at day 29. Source: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/article-abstract/2782185?