Capsaicin: Positive Effect of Oriental Spice on Skin Health
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Capsaicin, the main pungent ingredient in hot chili peppers, causes excitation of small sensory neurons. It also provides the basic pungent flavor in Capsicum fruits. Capsaicinoids are believed to have strong pharmacological properties that could be used in pain relief, weight reduction, cardiovascular conditions, and cancer prevention besides providing relief in gastrointestinal diseases.

Capsaicin plays a vital role as an agonist for the TRPV1 (transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 1) receptor. TRPV1 is essential for the reduction of oxidative stress, pain sensations, and inflammation. Therefore, it has many pros related to health issue. Capsaicin plays a vital role in the prevention of atopic dermatitis as well as psoriasis. Moreover, TRPV1 is also very important for skin health because it acts as a capsaicin receptor. It is found in nociceptive nerve fibers and nonneural structures. It prompts the release of a compound that is involved in communicating pain between the spinal cord nerves and other parts of the body.

Capsaicin is synthesized by 2 diverse in vivo pathways: (i) synthesis of phenylpropanoids leading to aromatic ring construction and (ii) the other being by metabolism of the fatty acid chain foremost to the hydrophobic acyl chain addition to form capsaicinoids.

Whenever TRPV1 is activated, it helps to induce a second message through calcium (Ca2+) influx in the epidermal keratinocytes. This entry of Ca2+ reduces inflammatory response one side, thereby decreasing harmful cutaneous stimulation. Capsaicin binding and induction, for the first time, desensitizes to the nervous system for burning sensation.

Capsaicin dysregulates epidermal proteases such as matriptase and KLKs and alters profilaggrin and CDSN proteolysis, possibly explaining the observed skin manifestations. Such events may be influenced by the extent of postnatal epidermal development. Furthermore, the usage of capsaicin patch reduced pain by 71% compared to the other control site.