Cardiac anomalies associated with Escobar syndrome
Escobar syndrome (ES) is an autosomal recessive disorder. It is highly characterized by facial abnormalities, congenital diaphragmatic muscle weakness, myasthenic-like features, and skin pterygiums on multiple body legions. ES is a rare condition associated with many external and internal abnormalities. The internal malformations described in ES affect many organs including the heart, lungs, esophagus, liver, spleen, and intestine. The purpose of this paper is to explore the cardiac manifestations associated with ES.

A 3.5-year-old girl, who was born for double first cousins, was admitted to the hospital for neuromuscular evaluation of multiple congenital contractures.

The girl was diagnosed with ES and isolated dextrocardia which is a rare cardiac manifestation. However, to the best of our knowledge, no similar cases have been reported to date, and this case is thus believed to be very rare.

The patient underwent an operative intervention to correct the bilateral fixed flexion deformity at her knees which was related to the posterior bilateral fibrotic bands/pterygia.

Post-operatively, complete knee extension was obtained, the patient was fitted with a cast and extension night splint. She was discharged alive and had no complications. The patient was followed regularly in the orthopedic clinic and had periodic physiotherapy sessions.

Conclusively, ES and isolated dextrocardia concurrence in the presented case resulted from different pathogenic mechanisms. These findings suggest that ES might be caused by dysfunction in the acetylcholine receptor throughout fetal life, which may have affected muscle strength and movement. Other cardiac conditions include hypoplastic left-sided heart, Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, patent ductus arteriosus, and heterotaxia.

Source: https://journals.lww.com/md-journal/Fulltext/2021/07300/Cardiac_anomalies_associated_with_Escobar.16.aspx
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