Cardiac sarcoidosis: growing evidence in risk stratification
Clinical presentation of cardiac sarcoidosis (CS) is manifold and ranges from an incidental finding to severe heart failure (HF), brady- or tachycardic arrhythmia, or sudden cardiac death (SCD). CS can mimic several cardiomyopathies, i.e. arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, and hypertrophic or dilated cardiomyopathy—in many ways comparable with the camouflaging of a chameleon. Approximately 5% of individuals with extracardiac sarcoidosis show clinically manifest cardiac involvement, while in autopsy and imaging studies about a quarter proved to exhibit involvement of the heart.