Change in dietary inflammatory index score is associated wit
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The dietary inflammatory index (DII®), a quantitative measure of daily food and nutrient intake's inflammatory capacity, and links to a range of health outcomes have been identified. The aim of this study was to see if a higher DII score leads to disease activity, and if a lower DII score helps patients with RA achieve or sustain low disease activity or remission.

A cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis was performed using 6 years of data, a cohort study consisting of 208 RA patients and 205 gender- and age-matched controls. Disease activity of RA patients was assessed annually using DAS28-ESR as a composite measure based on arthritic symptoms in 28 joints plus global health assessment and ESR. Dietary data were collected using the brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ). Energy-adjusted DII (E-DII™) score was calculated using 26 nutrients derived from the BDHQ. Data were analyzed with two-group comparisons, correlation analysis, and multivariable logistic regression analysis.

Results:
177 RA patients and 183 controls, for whom clinical and dietary survey data were available, were analyzed.

--RA patients had significantly higher E-DII (pro-inflammatory) score compared to controls.

--In RA patients, E-DII score was not a factor associated with significant change in disease activity. However, anti-inflammatory change in E-DII score was associated maintaining low disease activity (DAS28-ESR less than 3.2) or less for 6 years (OR 3.46).

To summarize, RA patient's diets had a higher inflammatory capacity than controls. While E-DII score was not linked to major changes in disease activity, anti-inflammatory changes in E-DII score tended to be linked to patients with RA maintaining low disease activity.

Source: https://arthritis-research.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13075-021-02478-y
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