Childhood Outcomes Following Parechovirus Infections in Youn
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Parechovirus A type 3 (PeV-A3) is associated with central nervous system infection in young infants. The objective of this study was to assess frequency of neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) following PeV-A3 infection in our US cohort.

Medical history, neurologic evaluation, parental completion of the Ages and Stages Questionnaire, and developmental assessment using Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Growth, Third Edition cognitive, motor, and language quotients were used to test infants hospitalized during the 2014 outbreak with laboratory-confirmed PeV-A3 infection. The NDI was calculated using published parameters. Fisher exact, 2 and Mann-Whitney U tests were used to assess the relationship between the incidence of PeV disease and outcome measures.

--19 children, term gestation, were evaluated at -3 years of age;

--PeV-A3 illness was uncomplicated for 6, complex, non-neurologic for 9 and encephalitis/seizures for 4.

--No differences were noted in mean Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition quotients between infants by clinical presentation. Quotients for all were within 1 SD of population norms.

--2 children had mild NDI; 1 with mild cerebral palsy.

--Ages and Stages Questionnaire results included 11% at referral level and 37% suspect concern. Parents of 6 (32%) noted behavior concerns. These findings were unrelated to severity of the PeV-A3 illness.

Parental problems were frequently found following infant PeV-A3 disease, concluding the study. At the age of three, 11% of children had neurodevelopmental disorders. The severity of the presentation had no correlation to negative childhood outcomes.