Clinical, Biologic and Echocardiography Criteria to Predict
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Acute diarrhea is the world's second largest cause of preventable infants mortality and morbidity. In this study, the main acute diarrhea pathogens were identified and changes in gut microbiota in Mexican children are described.

This single-center observational study included 30 children (6 months to 5 years old) with acute diarrhea. Stool samples at day 0 (D0) and day 15 (D15) were collected for identification of microorganisms (reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analyses with xTAG gastrointestinal pathogen panel multiplex assay) and microbiota analysis (16S gene amplification sequencing). Prescription decisions were made by the treating clinician.

Results:
--The main pathogens identified were norovirus and Campylobacter jejuni (20% each).

--The majority of patients (n = 24) were prescribed Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 for treatment of acute diarrhea. Diarrheic episodes resolved within 1 week of treatment.

--Compared with D15 and control samples, D0 samples showed significantly lower alpha diversity and a clear shift in overall composition (beta diversity).

--Alpha diversity was significantly increased in S. boulardii-treated group between D0 and D15 to a level similar to that of control group.

Conclusively, in these children, acute diarrhea was accompanied by significant alterations in gut microbiota. S. boulardii CNCM I-745 treatment may facilitate gut microbiota restoration in children with acute diarrhea, mostly through improvements in alpha diversity.

Source: https://journals.lww.com/pidj/Abstract/2021/08000/Studying_Clinical,_Biologic_and_Echocardiography.6.aspx
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