Clinicopathologic factors associated with malignant transfor
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Non-homogeneous oral leukoplakia (OL), Dysplastic leukoplakias, and lesions located on the tongue show the higher malignant transformation, says a study published in the International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery.

The aim of this retrospective study was to elucidate the associations between the malignant transformation of oral leukoplakias and various clinicopathologic factors.

Patients with a diagnosis of clinical oral leukoplakia, verified through histopathologic examination and with access to digital images of the lesion, were retrospectively included for the period 2003–2013. Using the clinical images, all lesions were re-evaluated regarding diagnosis and clinical subtype.

Of the 234 included patients, with a median follow-up of 9 years, 27 developed oral squamous cell carcinoma.

--Among the clinicopathologic factors investigated, non-homogeneous oral leukoplakia (OL), OL with dysplasia, and OL localized to the tongue showed statistically significant increased rates of malignant transformation in the multivariate Cox regression analysis.

--Non-homogeneous OL showed a 15.2-times higher transformation rate than homogenous OL.

--Dysplastic leukoplakias developed into carcinomas 2.4-times more often than did non-dysplastic leukoplakias.

--OL located on the tongue showed a 2.8-times higher malignant transformation rate than OLs at other oral locations when other locations were combined into one group.

In particular, non-homogeneous OL, OL with dysplasia, and OL localized to the tongue have higher transformation rates.

Source: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijom.2021.01.012
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