Co-occurrence of Wilson disease and oculocutaneous albinism
Both Wilson disease (WD) and Oculocutaneous Albinism (OCA) are rare autosomal recessive disorders that are caused by mutations on chromosome 13 and chromosome 11, respectively. Published in the journal Medicine, the authors report on a 19-year-old female patient with coexisting WD and OCA, initially presenting episodes of tremors.

WD is a disorder of copper metabolism. The main sites of copper accumulation are the liver and the brain, resulting in hepatic symptoms. OCA is a disorder of melanin biosynthesis, characterized by a generalized reduction in pigmentation of the eyes (oculo-), skin (-cutaneous), and hair.

The diagnosis of WD was confirmed by neurological symptoms, metabolism tests, and MRI scans. Interestingly, the patient also had very light skin color, blond hair and eyebrows, and dark brown eyelashes and irises. Because the association of dermatologic signs in WD has rarely been reported, OCA was highly suspected based on these clinical findings.

Genetic analysis was subsequently conducted, and the results revealed the p. (Arg778Leu) mutation in 1 allele and the p. (Asn1270Ser) mutation in the other allele of the ATP7B gene, confirming the diagnosis of WD; the p. (D456fs) mutation in 1 allele and the p. (R299H) mutation in the other allele of the TYR gene, confirming the diagnosis of OCA.

The family history was positive for WD with a 14-year-old younger brother also being diagnosed with it. Her parents are negative for OCA and WD.

Sodium dimercaptopropanesulfonate (DMPS) was given during hospitalization. D-penicillamine and zinc sulfate treatment was initiated after discharge for long-term control. Postural and intention tremor disappeared, and other symptoms and signs markedly improved after treatment.

Key takeaway:-
- In this study, the authors reported a first case of a child who simultaneously presented WD and OCA, bringing up the possibility of a presumable link between these 2 rare diseases.

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