Co-treatment with disulfiram and glycyrrhizic acid suppresse
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Osteoarthritis (OA) is a kind of systemic musculoskeletal disorder and a most important factor for causing disability and physical painfulness. It is of great necessity to find novel targets or drugs for OA treatment.

The chondrocytes were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to induce pyroptosis in OA. The cell proliferation was detected by Cell Counting Kit-8 assay (CCK-8 assay). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used for the detection of pyroptosis-related inflammatory factors. Then, the antagonists for gasdermin D (GSDMD) (disulfiram) and high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) (glycyrrhizic acid) were used to treat the cell model to observe the effects of disulfiram and glycyrrhizic acid on the proliferation of chondrocytes in OA. The protein levels of pyroptosis-related inflammatory factors were measured by western blot, and the levels of aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured by corresponding commercial kits.

Results:
--After chondrocytes were induced by LPS and ATP, the cell proliferation was decreased and the expressions of pyroptosis-related inflammatory factors were increased.

--Disulfiram and glycyrrhizic acid treatment led to enhanced cell proliferation and increased expressions of pyroptosis-related inflammatory factors, while disulfiram showed better alleviative effects on the inflammation in chondrocytes in OA.

--However, co-treatment with disulfiram at a high concentration and glycyrrhizic acid did not result in higher proliferation of chondrocytes and alleviated inflammation, but led to oxidative stress.

In conclusion, co-treatment with disulfiram and glycyrrhizic acid at a standard concentration suppresses the inflammatory response of chondrocytes, which may provide guidance for the use of the drugs in the treatment of OA.

Source: https://josr-online.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13018-021-02262-3
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