Comparison of general anesthesia with endotracheal intubatio
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There is no consensus on the optimal anesthesia method for intertrochanteric fracture surgeries in elderly patients. The study was aimed to compare the hemodynamics and perioperative outcomes of general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation, combined spinal-epidural anesthesia, and general anesthesia with laryngeal mask airway (LMA) and nerve block for intertrochanteric fracture surgeries in elderly patients.

This is a retrospective study of 75 patients aged > 60 years scheduled for intertrochanteric fracture surgeries with general anesthesia with intubation, combined spinal-epidural anesthesia, and general anesthesia with LMA and nerve block. The intraoperative hemodynamics were recorded, and the maximum variation rate was calculated. Postoperative analgesic effect was evaluated using the visual analog scale (VAS). Postoperative cognitive status was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE).

The maximum variation rate of intraoperative heart rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure differed significantly between the three groups (general anesthesia with intubation > combined spinal-epidural anesthesia > general anesthesia with LMA and nerve block). The VAS scores postoperative 2 h, 4 h, 6 h, and 8 h also differed significantly between the three groups (general anesthesia with intubation > combined spinal-epidural anesthesia > general anesthesia with LMA and nerve block). The VAS scores postoperative 24 h were significantly lower in the general anesthesia with LMA/nerve block group than the general anesthesia with intubation group and the combined spinal-epidural anesthesia group. The MMSE scores postoperative 15 min and 45 min differed significantly between the three groups (general anesthesia with intubation < combined spinal-epidural anesthesia < general anesthesia with LMA and nerve block). The MMSE scores postoperative 120 min in the general anesthesia with intubation group were the lowest among the three groups. There was no significant difference in the incidence of respiratory infection postoperative 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h between the three groups.

In conclusion compared to general anesthesia with intubation and combined spinal-epidural anesthesia, general anesthesia with LMA and nerve block had better postoperative analgesic effect and less disturbances on intraoperative hemodynamics and postoperative cognition for elderly patients undergoing intertrochanteric fracture surgeries.

Source : https://bmcanesthesiol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12871-019-0908-2#Abs1
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