Current status of advanced technologies on stem cells based
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Chronic periodontitis is a sort of prevalent disease characterized by the nonreversible chronic inflammatory destruction of the periodontium, which eventually leads to premature tooth loss. The most advancing regenerative techniques regarding stem cell culture and scaffold fabrication, such as cell sheeting, spheroid culture, electrospinning, and 3D printing have tremendous potential of regenerating the complete and functional periodontium but these techniques require further research and deeper knowledge to overcome the drawbacks and make it available for the clinical use.

The traditional techniques in the management of chronic periodontal disease may control periodontal inflammation but failed to regenerate functional periodontium. This review published in the Journal of Dental Sciences summarizes the most advancing regenerative techniques regarding stem cell culture and scaffold fabrication.

Advanced regenerating techniques such as cell sheeting, spheroid culture, spheroid culture, electrospinning, and 3D printing are reviewed. The main focus is on advanced technologies in periodontal tissue engineering with regard to stem cell culture and scaffold fabrication and shed a light on their drawbacks and the relevant future perspectives to be put into clinical use.

Though newer regenerative techniques have tremendous potential of regenerating the complete and functional periodontium new technologies have met with their own drawbacks such as insufficient vascularization and precision, which necessitate deeper modification.

Conclusively, tissue engineering based on stem cells has made evident progress in both cell culture and scaffold fabrication. But it's still not sufficient to put into clinical scenarios. Of necessity are the optimization of cell culture methods and related standard protocol as a whole. Multiphasic scaffolds should be improved in accuracy and adaptation regarding the angulation and three-dimension formation of micro-structures. The limitation also lies in the scarce source of stem cells as well as ethical and safety issues when using allogeneic stem cells. Currently, traditional clinical managements are still the option in most cases. It's concluded that stem-cell-based tissue engineering warrants further researches and investigations in an effort for clinical use.

Source: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jds.2020.07.008
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