Damage control resuscitation: a practical approach for sever
Coagulopathy observed in trauma patients was thought to be a resuscitation-associated phenomenon. The replacement of lost and consumed coagulation factors was the mainstay in the resuscitation of hemorrhagic shock for many decades. Twenty years ago, damage control surgery (DCS) was implemented to challenge the coagulopathy of trauma. It consists of three steps: abbreviated surgery to control the hemorrhage and contamination, resuscitation in the intensive care unit (ICU), and planned re-operation with definitive surgery....

http://jintensivecare.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s40560-016-0197-5
Damage control resuscitation: a practical approach for severely hemorrhagic patients and its effects on trauma surgery
Coagulopathy observed in trauma patients was thought to be a resuscitation-associated phenomenon. The replacement of lost and consumed coagulation factors was the mainstay in the resuscitation of hemorrhagic shock for many decades. Twenty years ago, damage control surgery (DCS) was implemented to challenge the coagulopathy of trauma. It consists of three steps: abbreviated surgery to control the hemorrhage and contamination, resuscitation in the intensive care unit (ICU), and planned re-operation with definitive surgery. The resuscitation strategy of DCS focused on the rapid reversal of acidosis and prevention of hypothermia through the first two steps. However, direct treatment of coagulopathy was not emphasized in DCS. Recently, better understanding of the pathophysiology of coagulopathy in trauma patients has led to the logical opinion that we should directly address this coagulopathy during major trauma resuscitation. Damage control resuscitation (DCR), the strategic approach to the trauma patient who presents in extremis, consists of balanced resuscitation, hemostatic resuscitation, and prevention of acidosis, hypothermia, and hypocalcemia. In balanced resuscitation, fluid administration is restricted and hypotension is allowed until definitive hemostatic measures begin. The administration of blood products consisting of fresh frozen plasma, packed red blood cells, and platelets, the ratio of which resembles whole blood, is recommended early in the resuscitation. DCR strategy is now the most beneficial measure available to address trauma-induced coagulopathy, and it can change the treatment strategy of trauma patients. DCS is now incorporated as a component of DCR. DCR as a structured intervention begins immediately after rapid initial assessment in the emergency room and progresses through the operating theater into the ICU in combination with DCS. By starting from ground zero with the performance of DCS, DCR allows the trauma surgeon to correct the coagulopathy of trauma. The effect of the reversal of coagulopathy in massively hemorrhagic patients may change the operative strategy with DCS.
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