Delayed Decompression Increases Death Risk In Patients With
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Obstructive pyelonephritis is considered a urological emergency but there is limited evidence regarding the importance of prompt decompression. Researchers sought to investigate whether delay in decompression is an independent predictor of in-hospital mortality. Secondarily, they aimed to determine the impact of patient, hospital and disease factors on the likelihood of receipt of delayed vs prompt decompression.

Using the National Inpatient Sample from 2010 to 2015, all patients 18 years old or older with ICD-9 diagnosis of urinary tract infection who had either a ureteral stone or kidney stone with hydronephrosis (311,100) were identified. Two weighted sample multivariable logistic regression models assessed predictors of the primary outcome of death in the hospital and secondly, predictors of delayed decompression (2 or more days after admission).

-- After controlling for patient demographics, comorbidity and disease severity, delayed decompression significantly increased odds of death by 29%.

-- Delayed decompression was more likely to occur with weekend admissions, nonwhite race and lower income demographic.

Conclusively, while the overall risk of mortality is fairly low in patients with obstructing upper urinary tract stones and urinary tract infection, a delay in decompression increased odds of mortality by 29%. The increased likelihood of delay associated with weekend admissions, minority patients and lower socioeconomic status suggests opportunities for improvement.