Dengue hemorrhagic fever – A systemic literature review of c
Dengue is an arboviral disease caused by dengue virus. Symptomatic dengue infection causes a wide range of clinical manifestations, from mild dengue fever (DF) to potentially fatal disease, such as dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) or dengue shock syndrome (DSS).

Researchers conducted a literature review to analyze the risks of DHF and current perspectives for DHF prevention and control.

According to the PRISMA guidelines, the references were selected from PubMed, Web of Science and Google Scholar database using search strings containing a combination of terms that included dengue hemorrhagic fever, pathogenesis, prevention and control. Quality of references were evaluated by independent reviewers.

DHF was first reported in the Philippines in 1953 and further transmitted to the countries in the region of South-East Asia and Western Pacific. Plasma leakages is the main pathophysiological hallmark that distinguishes DHF from DF. Severe plasma leakage can result in hypovolemic shock. Various factors are thought to impact disease presentation and severity. Virus virulence, preexisting dengue antibodies, immune dysregulation, lipid change and host genetic susceptibility are factors reported to be correlated with the development of DHF. However, the exact reasons and mechanisms that triggers DHF remains controversial. Currently, no specific drugs and licensed vaccines are available to treat dengue disease in any of its clinical presentations.

This study concludes that antibody-dependent enhancement, cytokine dysregulation and variation of lipid profiles are correlated with DHF occurrence. Prompt diagnosis, appropriate treatment, active and continuous surveillance of cases and vectors are the essential determinants for dengue prevention and control.

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