Dextrose 5% contrast echocardiography for diagnosis of unroo
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This is the report of a very rare case of tetralogy of Fallot with partially unroofed coronary sinus, at the proximal portion, with drainage of persistent left superior vena cava into the coronary sinus.

Contrast echocardiography is an established non-invasive tool for diagnosis of UCS. Association of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) and UCS is very rare.

A four-year-old girl with TOF and UCS with bilateral superior vena cava diagnosed by contrast echocardiography using both agitated saline and agitated dextrose water 5% (DW5%). DW5%-contrast echocardiography was as effective as saline contrast echocardiography regarding the size, echogenicity and stability of the microbubbles. The advantages and disadvantages of the currently available ultrasound-enhancing agents (UEA) in terms of safety, adverse effects, contraindications and worldwide availability are compared. In contrast to saline, DW5% does not cause volume expansion. Dextrose 5% is a safe and effective UEA for pediatric contrast echocardiography in children with congenital heart disease.

Considering the advantages and disadvantages of the commercially available UEA's, DW 5% is a safe and effective UEA for use in pediatric contrast echocardiography in children with congenital heart disease. It does not lead to volume expansion and is available worldwide at a relatively low-cost.

Source: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2468600X18302287
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