Diffuse persistent pulmonary interstitial emphysema secondar
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Persistent interstitial pulmonary emphysema (PIE) is a rare disease and it is even more uncommon in full-term infants, like our patient. When conservative management is not successful, surgical treatment should be considered.We report an 18-day-old male infant with bronchiolitis that required mechanical ventilation with high positive airway pressures due to severe respiratory insufficiency. Chest X-rays and computed tomography scan revealed a severely hyperinflated left lung with extensive destructive changes and multiple small bullae. These findings were consistent with diffuse persistent interstitial emphysema (PIE), probably due to mechanical ventilation. The patient required high-frequency oscillatory ventilation, inotropic support and continuous renal replacement therapy. He eventually suffered a cardiac arrest that required cardiopulmonary resuscitation and ECMO during 5 days with progressive clinical improvement and normalization of the X-ray...

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