Double Reducer implantation in the coronary venous system fo
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The coronary sinus (CS) Reducer can be considered for the treatment of refractory angina in patients unsuitable for coronary revascularization, but its effect can be influenced by the significant heterogeneity in the anatomy of the cardiac venous system.

A 70-year-old woman with recurrent episodes of rest angina refractory to optimal medical therapy [Canadian Cardiovascular Society (CCS) Class IV] and inducible ischaemia in a large myocardial territory. Given the diffuse and peripheral nature of the coronary disease, the patient was considered ineligible for percutaneous or surgical revascularization and she was regarded as a good candidate for a CS occluder. Since coronary venous angiography showed the middle cardiac vein (MCV) to be at least as relevant as the CS, successful implantation of two devices, one in the CS and the second in the MCV, was performed. At 6-month follow-up, the patient reported a significant improvement in angina, resulting in a reduction of the CCS class from Grades IV to III.

In patients affected by refractory angina and regarded as good candidates for Reducer implantation, a thorough comprehension of the cardiac venous pathway drainage is of pivotal importance to guarantee the therapeutic success of the procedure. In this patient, since the CS and the MCV seemed to contribute equally to coronary venous drainage, Reducer implantation in both vessels allowed to obtain a significant improvement of symptoms. The clinical effectiveness of this strategy needs to be validated in randomized clinical trials.