Double ipsilateral parathyroid adenomas, with one supernumer
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Double adenomas (DA) represents a distinct clinical entity of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). DA may follow various embryologic distribution patterns and could be supernumerary and/or ectopic.

Authors describe the first case of PHPT which comes as a result of double ipsilateral adenoma, of which one was both ectopic and supernumerary. A 45 year-old Greek male patient with diagnosed PHPT due to a single lower right parathyroid adenoma was admitted to our department for surgical treatment. The preoperative tests (neck US, Sestamibi scan) were conclusive for single gland disease. The patient underwent focused parathyroidectomy. The frozen section revealed a parathyroid adenoma with a slight possibility for parathyroid carcinoma.

Ten minutes after the excision, intact PTH (iPTH) dropped >50% related to preoperative values and was within normal range. Right hemithyroidectomy with additional ipsilateral central neck dissection was performed, because of the possibility for parathyroid carcinoma. The final pathology report showed that the first excised tissue proved to be a parathyroid adenoma, while a second subcapsular one and a normal right upper parathyroid gland were also found.

Preoperative localization of DA using routine imaging tests and the utility of intraoperative parathyroid hormone assay are still unreliable in detecting multiple adenomas. Furthermore, a slight possibility of a second and simultaneously supernumerary and ectopic adenoma maybe present. Therefore, it would be advisable to establish the use of more advanced imaging tests (such as 4D-CT, 4D-MRI) or other diagnostic tools when DA are suspected.