Drug-coated balloon treatment in coronary artery disease
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Coronary artery disease (CAD) is currently the leading cause of death globally, and the prevalence of this disease is growing more rapidly in the Asia-Pacific region than in Western countries. Although the use of metal coronary stents has rapidly increased thanks to the advancement of safety and efficacy of newer-generation drug-eluting stent (DES), patients are still negatively affected by some of the inherent limitations of this type of treatment, such as stent thrombosis or restenosis, including neoatherosclerosis, and the obligatory use of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) with unknown optimal duration.

Drug-coated balloon (DCB) treatment is based on a leave-nothing-behind concept and therefore it is not limited by stent thrombosis and long-term DAPT; it directly delivers an anti-proliferative drug that is coated on a balloon after improving coronary blood flow. At present, Drug-coated balloon treatment is recommended as the first-line treatment option in metal stent-related restenosis linked to DES and bare-metal stent. For de novo coronary lesions, the application of Drug-coated balloon treatment is extended further, for conditions such as small vessel disease, bifurcation lesions, and chronic total occlusion lesions, and others. Recently, several reports have suggested that fractional flow reserve guided drug-coated balloon application was safe for larger coronary artery lesions and showed good long-term outcomes. Therefore, the aim of these recommendations of the consensus group was to provide adequate guidelines for patients with CAD based on objective evidence, and extend the application of Drug-coated balloons to a wider variety of coronary diseases, and guide their most effective and correct use in actual clinical practice.