Effectiveness of Medical Nutritional Therapy in the Manageme
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This study aimed to assess the effect of medical nutritional therapy (MNT) provided by dieticians on medical and clinical outcomes for adults with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

Researchers sought compare effectiveness of MNT administered monthly to MNT administered once in 03 months.

The study was conducted at the Department of Endocrinology in a tertiary care hospital. 98 men and women of the age group above 18 years were recruited in the study. 49 consenting individuals were randomly assigned to each of the 02 groups namely Group A and Group B. Group A consisted of 02 visits with dietician (including the initial visit) in the first month and thereafter every monthly. Group B consisted of initial visit with the dietician and there after every 03 monthly.

An additional 49 adults with type 2 Diabetes mellitus at one site who had no facility for a contact with dietician were included as a comparison group. Medical outcome measures including fasting plasma glucose (FPG), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and serum lipid levels were compared and analyzed. Clinical outcomes included Body weight, Height and Body mass index (BMI).Data was collected at the entry to the study and at 03 and 06 months interval.

Result:
-- In this study, the baseline fasting plasma glucose (FPG), HbA1C, total cholesterol and BMI was more or less similar in all 3 groups.

-- There was a sustained decrease in all the four parameters in Group A which received the maximum nutritional therapy over a period of 06 months (A mean decrease of FPG 15.2 mg/dL, HbA1C 0.59%, total cholesterol 19.6 mg/dL, BMI 0.5 kg/m2 from baseline at 03 months and a mean decrease of FPG 33.4 mg/dL, HbA1C 1.24%, total cholesterol 40.8 mg/dL, BMI 1.1 kg/m2 from baseline at 06 months was seen).

-- However, in Group B which received intermitted nutritional therapy, the decrease in these parameters were observed initially but over a period of 06 months, they increased to more or less near the baseline value months (A mean decrease of FPG 12.9 mg/dL, HbA1C 0.73%, total cholesterol 16.1 mg/dL, BMI 0.5 kg/m2 from baseline at 03 months but a mean increase of FPG 3.2 mg/dL and a mean decrease of HbA1C 0.24%, total cholesterol of 4.3 mg/dL and BMI 0.15 kg/m2 from baseline at 06 months was seen).

-- In Group C which had no means of access to nutritional therapy, there was a subtle decrease in FPG and gradual increase in HbA1C, total cholesterol and BMI at 03 months but all four parameters increased significantly higher than the baseline value at the end of 06 months months (A mean decrease of FPG 6.2 mg/dL and mean increase of HbA1C 0.31%, total cholesterol 16.0 mg/dL, BMI 0.3 kg/m2 from baseline at 03 months and a mean increase of FPG 5.9 mg/dL, HbA1C 0.73%, total cholesterol 31.1 mg/dL, BMI 0.81 kg/m2 from baseline at 06 months was seen).

Conclusively, this study has clearly indicated that medical nutritional therapy is of great importance in the holistic management of Type 2 Diabetes mellitus in adults. MNT has got the advantage of not only maintaining a strict glycemic control (in terms of FPG and HbA1C reduction) but also in the lowering of cholesterol and BMI which are the main contributors to cardiovascular (CVD) events among people with type 2 Diabetes mellitus. Also, people who were given frequent MNT had a clear advantage over those who received intermittent MNT in terms of all the measured parameters.

Source: https://www.japi.org/x28474a4/effectiveness-of-medical-nutritional-therapy-in-the-management-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
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